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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128164839000013, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122268652000389, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065211308600516, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122270509001630, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128020708000086, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124171046000182, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128104392000179, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128121603000027, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128115190000017, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128113080000193, Grapevine Breeding Programs for the Wine Industry, 2015, Agriculture in the Era of Climate Change: Consequences and Effects, Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems, Crabb, 1947; Hayes, 1963; Wallace and Brown, 1956, CROP IMPROVEMENT | Plant Breeding, Practice. Rajat P. Singh, ... Ram Lakhan Singh, in Biotechnology for Sustainable Agriculture, 2018. [3] This allows plant breeders to screen large populations of plants for those that possess the trait of interest. Stages of a plant breeding program. Once genetic variation is produced, it is necessary to select the desired types, which have a better expression of particular characters or combination of characters. breed‧ing /ˈbriːdɪŋ/ noun [ uncountable] 1. The basic idea is that farmers and researchers have different knowledge and practical skills, as well as divergent approaches to problem diagnosis and solving (Weltzien et al., 2003). However, the reality is more complex. The use efficiency of N and K is controlled by complex gene networks that coordinate uptake, assimilation, remobilization, and storage of these nutrients. Collaboration between farmers and scientists can take many forms, and roles and responsibilities can be shared in many diverse ways. Similarly, animal breeding is commonly achieved through sexual mating of two different animals (Brown and Caligari, 2011). Another limitation of viral vectors is that the virus is not usually passed on to the progeny, so every plant has to be inoculated. It is practiced worldwide by individuals such as gardeners and farmers, and by professional plant breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions, universities, crop-specific industry associations or research centers. This technique has been used to produce new rice for Africa, an interspecific cross of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima). Participatory plant breeding (PPB) includes various approaches of close farmer–researcher collaboration to bring about plant genetic improvement within a species. It is estimated that over 95% of organic agriculture is based on conventionally adapted varieties, even though the production environments found in organic vs. conventional farming systems are vastly different due to their distinctive management practices. CMS is a maternally inherited trait that makes the plant produce sterile pollen. For example, the cotton bollworm, a common cotton pest, feeds on Bt cotton it will ingest the toxin and die. Modern plant breeding is applied genetics, but its scientific basis is broader, covering molecular biology, cytology, systematics, physiology, pathology, entomology, chemistry, and statistics (biometrics). If for genetic modification genes of the species or of a crossable plant are used under control of their native promoter, then they are called cisgenic plants. [2] The goals of plant breeding are to produce crop varieties that boast unique and superior traits for a variety of agricultural applications. Classical breeding relies largely on homologous recombination between chromosomes to generate genetic diversity. Plants are crossbred to introduce traits/genes from one variety or line into a new genetic background. Plant breeding has been practiced since humans first began to cultivate crops. The most frequently addressed traits are those related to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, grain or biomass yield, end-use quality characteristics such as taste or the concentrations of specific biological molecules (proteins, sugars, lipids, vitamins, fibers) and ease of processing (harvesting, milling, baking, malting, blending, etc.). Genome sequencing, mapping, gene identification, and expression studies have already been discussed in former parts of this chapter. The development of hybrid corn and the principles leading to it have been reviewed extensively (Crabb, 1947; Hayes, 1963; Wallace and Brown, 1956) and will not be reviewed in detail here. PPB is enhanced by farmers knowledge of the quality required and evaluation of target environment which affects the effectiveness of PPB. For example, mass selection for sucrose concentration in the beet root began in 1786 and was continued until 1830. Over the past 100 years the intensity of plant breeding has increased, and is now recognized as an intricate integration of science (or sciences) and practicality. Conventional breeding, the slow rate of development of new crop varieties, and the curb of fertility barriers that prevented the hybridization of the same or closely associated species, have all significantly contributed to the development of high-yielding crop cultivars. However, there are uncertainties about where the transgenes are inserted in the genome and transgenic expression makes GE less precise than originally thought. For example, farmers can contribute their own check or control varieties to trials, or farmer varieties can also be used as breeding parents in crossing programs. Critics of organic agriculture claim it is too low-yielding to be a viable alternative to conventional agriculture. Overexpression of particular genes involved in cold acclimation has been shown to produce more resistance to freezing, which is one common cause of yield loss[14], Genetic modification of plants that can produce pharmaceuticals (and industrial chemicals), sometimes called pharming, is a rather radical new area of plant breeding. Thus, plants with the aforementioned characteristics can be raised through the application of classical as well as advanced molecular biology and genetic engineering principles (Cairns, 2013).

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