The disease was originally related to Phytophthora parasitica but more recently to Lasiodiplodia theobromae. According to Dade (1940), the presence of Phytophthora in Ghana was first reported between 1928 and 1930, but not on Citrus species. PubMed  Ghana J Agric Sci 32:11–17, Clerk GC (1974) Crops and their diseases in Ghana. Phytophthora requires moisture to move to trees via rain, irrigation, or whenever spores splash on tree trunks. Citrus Gummosis Information. Further country-wide surveys will elucidate the role of P. citrophthora and other Phytophthora species in a gummosis of Citrus species in Ghana. Species of the family Botryosphaeriaceae were associated with twig and branch dieback of citrus (Fawcett and Burger 1911; Adesemoye et al. Plant Pathol 57:84–91, Assuah MK, Oduro KA, Ofosu-Budu KG (1999) Diplodia natalensis pole Evans, the causal agent of citrus gummosis disease in Ghana. Affected tissues of the scion were removed from the margins of gummosis lesions. Aggressive pruning is designed to control the fungi that cause cankers, but it doesn’t look like your tree is infected with them. Bleeding or oozing of sap from a tree, although not normal, won't necessarily permanently harm a tree or woody plant; most of them will survive.It's also important to remember that there are many causes for free-running sap from trees, including insect borers, cankers, bark injury, and a variety of diseases. 2007). The aetiology of citrus gummosis in Ghana was reassessed in the same locations surveyed by previous studies. This disease is also known as gumming diseases of citrus. Click on photos to enlarge Aboveground dieback. Published under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 licence. It is caused by a fungus. Growing colonies were transferred to potato dextrose agar (PDA) and maintained at 24 °C in the dark for characterisation of colony morphology. Infection may occur from soil or nursery plants due to extended periods of moist and wet conditions. The disease was originally related to Phytophthora parasitica but more recently to Lasiodiplodia theobromae. : causal agent of citrus gummosis disease in Ghana. Plant Dis 98:55–61, Article  No symptoms were observed on control plants. 1a). The objective of the current study was to reassess the aetiology of citrus gummosis in Ghana. However, gummosis can also be caused by any wound to a stone fruit tree, including winter damage, disease damage, or damage from a gardening tool. In Ghana, the disease was originally associated with Phytophythora parasitica, but details of the aetiological methods used were not provided (Leather 1959; Clerk 1974). 1990) from DNA extracted from a representative isolate designated as FHCRC-PHY1, obtained from C. sinensis at Kade, Ghana. Brentu, F.C., Vicent, A. Gummosis of citrus in Ghana caused by Phytophthora citrophthora 1b). No chlamydospores were observed. PCR products were purified with the High Pure PCR Product Purification Kit (Roche Diagnostics GmbH) and directly sequenced using the Tag DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems). Typical Phytophthora-like noncaducous, papillate sporangia were observed when incubated in sterile soil extract (Fig. Forest and Horticultural Crops Research Centre-Kade, School of Agriculture, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Moncada, Valencia, Spain, You can also search for this author in CAS  If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. These zoospores are the infective agents that may be transported in rain or irrigation to the roots. When the affected bark tissues were removed, the diseased wood surface appeared dark brown with decreasing intensity to light brown. 1999). It is caused by a fungus. PubMed  Phytopathology 103:1204–1208, Article  J App Sci Tech 7:44–50, Ofosu-Budu KG, Monney EO, Quaye E, Amankwah A, Mintah P, Mpere-Asare C, Agboka M (2007) Citrus production in Ghana. Plant Dis Rep 54:869–870, Jeffers SN, Martin SB (1986) Comparison of two media selective for Phytophthora and Pythium species. Use bordeaux-pest 10% on wounds created by pruning and on the main trunk from the ground well to about one meter high. Gummosis is one of the main diseases that contribute to for citrus decline. These results were later supported by Offei et al. Oomycete strains with coenocytic hyphae and petaloid colony pattern were consistently isolated from affected tissues in all 50 samples analysed (Fig. 1999). 1c). Google Scholar, Álvarez LA, Vicent A, De la Roca E, Bascón J, Abad-Campos P, Armengol J, García-Jiménez J (2008) Branch cankers on citrus trees in Spain caused by Phytophthora citrophthora. Cite this article. The aetiology of citrus gummosis in Ghana was reassessed in the same locations surveyed by previous studies. Google Scholar, Hearn CJ, Fenton R (1970) Benomyl sprays for control of twig dieback of ‘Robinson’ tangerine. ©CAB International. If you see gummy sap leaking out of your peach , plum , cherry or apricot tree , it is probably gummosis. Below is an overview of some of the most common causes. Sporangia were produced by cutting 5-mm-wide strips from colonies growing on V8 and floating them on 10 ml of 1.5 % sterile soil extract for 4–5 days at 24 °C under fluorescent light. Under favorable conditions (high moisture and temperature) it produces large numbers of motile zoospores that can swim in water for short distances. Notes 10, 34 (2015). Shape of sporangia was obpyriform or ovoid with the following lengths and widths: 50.6 (36.5–64.4) × 31.1 (23.6–38.6) μm and with a L:W ratio of 1.6 (1.3–2.3) based on 100 measurements. Phytophthora citrophthora was confirmed as the causal agent of the disease. a Gummosis lesion in a sweet orange tree grafted onto rough lemon rootstock at Kade, Ghana; b Petaloid colony of Phytophthora citrophthora growing in potato dextrose agar; c Papillate sporangium of P. citrophthora; and d Lesion in a sweet orange tree inoculated with P. citrophthora. Affected trees showed leaf chlorosis and twig die-back with reduced fruit production. Depending on the isolate, lesion lengths ranged from 22 to 76 mm and P. citrophthora was re-isolated. Mycologia 3:151–153, Grunwald NJ, Martin FN, Larsen MM, Sullivan CM, Press CM, Coffey MD, Hansen EM, Parke JL (2011) Phytophthora-ID.org: a sequence based Phytophthora identification tool. Plant Dis 70:1038–1043, Leather RI (1959) Diseases of economic plants in Ghana other than cacao. Ten isolates, including FHCRC-PHY1, were grown on PDA and used in the pathogenicity tests. Plant Dis 95:337–342, Article  Diplodia natalensis) as the causal agent of the disease in Kade (Assuah et al. The unproductive branches have fast upward growth. 1d). We thank L.W Timmer (CREC-IFAS/University of Florida) for reviewing the manuscript. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Surveys conducted in 1959 indicated that about 40 % of the citrus orchards in Ghana were affected by a severe trunk rot disease (Leather 1959) and it is currently considered of major economic importance (Offei et al.

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