This plant is considered more tropical than its Chinese variety, growing larger and producing bigger leaves (due to a climate with plenty of rain and warm temperatures). The database and code is licensed under a The first tea plant variety to be discovered, recorded, and used to produce tea dates back 3,000 years ago, it yields some of the most popular teas. waldenae was considered a different species, C. waldenae by SY Hu,[22] but it was later identified as a variety of C. However, as the Indian Assam tea shares no haplotypes with Western Yunnan Assam tea, Indian Assam tea is likely to have originated from an independent domestication. The plant is also named Assam Tea. The gene TCS1 encodes caffeine synthase. The variation assamica is distributed in China, India, Japan and Corea. [10], Chinese (small leaf) type tea may have originated in southern China possibly with hybridization of unknown wild tea relatives. sinensis and C. s. var. Show All Show Tabs Assam tea In cultivation the plants are usually kept pruned to a height of 1 - 1.5 metres and trained as a low profusely branching and spreading bush[ These prefer different climates—var. If you enjoy tea, you will probably know that there are two main varieties of Camellia sinensis used to make tea: Camellia sinensis var. The leaves are 4–15 cm (1.6–5.9 in) long and 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) broad. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Butterflies, Wasps. Camellia sinensis is an evergreen, multi-stemmed shrub growing up to 3 metres tall (var sinensis), or a tree that can reach 10 - 15 metres tall with one main stem (var assamica). The sinensis and assamica varieties. [17] The young, light-green leaves are preferably harvested for tea production; they have short, white hairs on the underside. The seeds of C. sinensis and C. oleifera can be pressed to yield tea oil, a sweetish seasoning and cooking oil that should not be confused with tea tree oil, an essential oil that is used for medical and cosmetic purposes, and originates from the leaves of a different plant. Georg Kamel,[4] SJ (1661–1706), a Moravian-born Jesuit lay brother, pharmacist, and missionary to the Philippines. Dephosphorylation of xanthosine-5'-monophosphate into xanthosine is the committed step for the xanthosines entering the beginning of the most common pathway. Two principal varieties are used, the small-leaved Chinese variety plant (C. s. sinensis) and the large-leaved Assamese plant (C. s. assamica), used mainly for black tea. [9], Tea plants are native to East Asia, and probably originated in the borderlands of north Burma and southwestern China. Camellia Sinensis Assamica The C. s. assamica was discovered in Assam, India in the early 19 th century and is grown extensively in India, Africa, and Sri Lanka. Camellia sinensis assamica is an evergreen Shrub growing to 10 m (32ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a slow rate. [8] The name sinensis means "from China" in Latin. The generic name Camellia is taken from the Latinized name of Rev. [23] This variety is commonly called Waldenae Camellia. The plantation is in the background, with a nursery full of germinating tea seeds in the foreground, http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/, https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/v5-toc.html, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. assamica. A sequence of reactions turns xanthosine into 7-methylxanthosine, then 7-methylxanthine, then theobromine, and finally into caffeine. Three main kinds of tea are produced in India: Nepali tea is also considered to be similar to the tea produced in Darjeeling, mostly because the eastern part of Nepal, where a large amount of tea is produced, has similar topography to that of Darjeeling. [27][28] The biosynthetic pathway in C. sinensis differs from other caffeine-producing plants such as coffee or guayusa. Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrubs or small trees in the flowering plant family Theaceae whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. assamica (JW Masters) Kitamura are most commonly used for tea, and C. s. var. Tea plants prefer a rich and moist growing location in full to part sun, and can be grown in hardiness zones 7 – 9. For the unrelated evergreen flowering plant, see. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. C. sinensis is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates, in areas with at least 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall a year. Species of flowering plant in the family Theaceae, "Tea plant" redirects here. There are two main varieties used: Camellia sinensis var. The flowers are yellow-white, 2.5–4 cm (0.98–1.57 in) in diameter, with seven or eight petals. Robert Sweet shifted all formerly Thea species to the genus Camellia in 1818. [26] Caffeine is a purine alkaloid and its biosynthesis occurs in young tea leaves and is regulated by several enzymes. Thus, Western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea both may have originated from the same parent plant in the area where southwestern China, Indo-Burma, and Tibet meet. Carl Linnaeus chose his name in 1753 for the genus to honor Kamel's contributions to botany[5] (although Kamel did not discover or name this plant, or any Camellia,[6] and Linnaeus did not consider this plant a Camellia but a Thea).[7]. Hundreds,[14] if not thousands of cultivars of C. sinensis are known. Some Japanese cultivars include: C. sinensis is native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia, but it is today cultivated across the world in tropical and subtropical regions. In 2017, Chinese scientists sequenced the genome of C. s. var. assamica is better suited to warmer climates whereas var. Four varieties of C. sinensis are recognized. It thrives in tropical areas and low elevation. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. Analysis of the pathway was carried out by harvesting young leaves and using reverse transcription PCR to analyze the genes encoding the major enzymes involved in synthesizing caffeine. 9 March 2018. sinensis is better suited to the cooler southern regions. [18] It contains about three billion base pairs, which was larger than most plants previously sequenced.[19]. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. [2] Of these, C. sinensis var. sinensis (green tea). sinensis. C. s. var. Masters) Kitam. web interface by If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. dehungensis (Hung T. Chang & BH Chen) TL Ming are sometimes used locally. assamica . Usually, the tip (bud) and the first two to three leaves are harvested for processing. [11][12], Chinese small leaf type tea was introduced into India in 1836 by the British and some Indian Assam type tea (e.g. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by Fresh leaves contain about 4% caffeine, as well as related compounds including theobromine. The leaves are much larger than the Chinese variety.

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